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    Glossary

    Treatments:

    Add shine:

    The key to healthy, shiny hair is a good blow-dry using a round boar bristle brush to smooth cuticles, section by section. Shine products can be effective, but use sparingly, to avoid looking too greasy.
    Anita Cox
    Hairstylist

    Anti-ageing:

    Combat inflammation - Free Radical damage - with Antioxidants and anti-inflammatory fats (Omega 3) and look for peptides, retinol (vitamin A), glycolics, collagen and SPF as a preventative measure against future ageing.
    Dr. Daniel Sister
    Anti-ageing skincare expert

    Exfoliating:

    Removes dead skin cells revealing more radiant skin below and aiding penetration of anti-ageing and protecting serums. Can be chemical using AHAs/BHAs or Glycols, or with beads or granules.
    Sarah Chapman
    Skincare expert

    Firming/Sculpting:

    Skin firming/sculpting relates to muscle tone and bone density. Eat a protein-rich diet and apply a topical DMAE (a precursor to Acetyl Choline which tightens the muscles) to help sculpt the face.
    Christian Lee
    Nutritionist

    Illuminating:

    Clean, buff and moisturise your face, as nourished skin illuminates naturally from under make-up. Prime the skin, use light foundations or tinted moisturisers and highlight with shimmer products.
    Mary Greenwell
    Makeup artist

    Moisturising:

    There are two main types of moisturisers: hummecants which attract water to the cells and occlusive that form a protective barrier preventing loss of water from the skin's surface.
    Christian Lee
    Nutritionist

    Plumping:

    Plumping skin makes it look more radiant, youthful and fresh. Massage skin in small circular movements to increase blood flow, pump oxygen into blood, boost collagen production and remove toxins.
    Nichola Joss
    Skincare expert

    Repairing:

    Rough skin is caused by a build up of keretinised cells, sun-damage, dirt, or excessive use of self-tan. Exfoliate to smooth skin using products with a base of AHA (Alpha Hydroxy Acid), Glycolic Acid or fruit acid.
    Nichola Joss
    Skincare expert

    Hair type:

    Coloured/Treated

    Invest in the best professional products specifically designed for coloured/treated hair to keep the colour glossy. Try to avoid products containing alcohol as it really strips colour from hair.
    Jo Hansford
    Hairstylist

    Fine/Flyaway

    People often mistake flyaway hair for frizz, using oil-based products that are far too heavy for fine hair. Try cream-based products and trim hair every 6-8 weeks, to keep ends looking neat and thicker.
    Anita Cox
    Hairstylist

    Thick/Coarse

    Control thick hair with straighteners, after which it should stay put because the texture keeps its shape. Try Vitamin-enriched shampoo and conditioner designed for thick hair to leave it silky smooth.
    Karine Jackson
    Hairstylist

    Curly

    Curly hair is usually strong, but coarse, and often lacks shine. Use rich moisture-enhancing products to avoid frizz and dry ends. De-humidifying, intensive conditioning can help tame and define curls.
    Tara Smith
    Hairstylist

    Afro

    Afro hair is delicate, especially when wet, chemically relaxed or straightened. Avoid over-washing hair and use moisturising shampoos and deep conditioners, hot oil treatments and a boar bristle brush to stimulate scalp.

    Mature

    Hair can become drier and coarser with age so it is best to use a deeper conditioner before drying hair to soften it. Styling can be more difficult so experiment with different styling products to keep hair in place.
    Karine Jackson
    Hairstylist

    Blonde

    Red hair can be more porous and needs extra conditioning and brightening to counteract the natural darkening process. Use moisturising shampoos and conditioners with SPF to protect against sun damage
    Anita Cox
    Hairstylist

    Brown

    Usually shiny, giving the illusion of warmth and richness. For treated brunette, choose a warm undertone to accentuate shine; use colour-specific shampoo and conditioner with added pigment.
    Anita Cox
    Hairstylist

    Black

    Often thicker and courser than others and benefits from richer, creamier, moisture-based products. Avoid drying alcohol-based products and use a paddle brush to avoid ripping tangles.

    Complexion:

    Pale

    Blemishes and irregularities show up more on pale skin so keep it buffed and polished. Don't go too matt, pump up your skin's energy with shimmer and luminosity and play up your eyes and lips.
    Mary Greenwell
    Makeup artist

    Medium

    Retains youthfulness but prone to oiliness, spots and pigmentation. Choose gentle cleansers, light moisturisers with SPF 20 , oil-free makeup and gold, bronze and green colours.

    Dark

    Dark skin is prone to pigmentation and dark circles. Oil-free foundations with more of a red pigment are good for black skin, more yellow for Asian. Choose bright, intense colours but avoid pastels.
    Ruby Hammer
    Makeup artist

    Skin type:

    Sensitive

    Use gentle milk cleansers and moisturisers with calming ingredients eg. Aloe and Chamomile to avoid aggravation. Drink water to keep skin hydrated, and touch skin minimally.
    Michelle Roques-O'Neill
    Aromatherapist

    Dry

    Skin lacks oil, leading to wrinkles and fine lines. Prevent premature aging with rich moisturisers, eat foods high in Omega-3 oils, avoid overexposure to sun and wind and exfoliate regularly.
    Michelle Roques-O'Neill
    Aromatherapist

    Oily

    Indicates an excess of bodily heat. Skin gets clogged more easily which causes black/whiteheads and enlarged pores. Touch skin with clean hands and gently exfoliate to remove dead cells.
    Michelle Roques-O'Neill
    Aromatherapist

    Mature

    Intrinsic ageing is irreversible but extrinsic ageing can be slowed by protecting skin against UV damage, taking antioxidant-rich Vitamins A, C, E and Bioflavanoids, and not smoking.
    Shenaz Shariff
    Skincare expert

    Normal/Combination

    Oily T-Zone with drier cheek and eye areas. Benefits from deep cleansing, clay masks, hydrating and firming products and treatments, with more moisturising needed in colder months.
    Shenaz Shariff
    Skincare expert

    Contains:

    Omegas

    Omegas, including Linoleic Acid, are powerful anti-inflammatory essential fatty acids and a key component of sebum. Consume and apply Omega oils topically to prevent acne and other skin problems.
    Karen Sinclair Drake
    Sophyto founder

    Vitamin A/Retinol

    Retinol is the alcohol form of Vitamin A, an anti-ageing vitamin. It has an exfoliating effect but can cause slight irritation on sensitive skin so should be used with sunscreens to avoid hyperpigmentation.
    Sarah Chapman
    Facialist and skincare expert

    Peptides

    Naturally occurring elements that prevent and repair damage from internal and external free radicals. Vitamins A, C, E, Selenium, and Coenzyme Q10 are exceptional Antioxidants.
    Michelle Roques-O'Neil
    Aromatherapist

    SPF

    Protects skin from (UVA/UVB) sun rays, which causes wrinkles, pigment- ation, brown spots, and Melanomas (cancer). The higher the factor the better but covering up is the best protection.
    Susie Rogers
    BeautyWorksWest founder

    Botanical ingredients

    Chemicals can be effective for skin maintenance but can have adverse effects. Herbs and other plants offer excellent natural healing properties, especially when blended together, without side effects.
    Aunt Ilcsi
    Founder of Ilcsi Skincare

    Alpha hydroxy acid

    Derived from fruit or milk sugars, Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) help reduce wrinkles, spots, and other signs of ageing and sun-damage. Build up tolerance gradually and use with SPF to prevent sun sensitivity.
    Karen Sinclair Drake

    Alpha lipoic acid

    A universal (water and fat-soluble) antioxidant that boosts cells' energy production, regulates glucose levels and prevents AGEs (Advanced Glycation End-products) that can cause wrinkles.
    Christian Lee
    Nutritionist

    Glycolic acid

    An organic acid used to break bonds in the epidermis to gently 'dissolve' the dead skins and improve tone and texture. It reduces wrinkles, acne scarring and hyperpigmentation.
    Christian Lee
    Nutritionist

    Vitamin C

    Effective skin brightener, Antioxidant and exfoliant. Water-soluble forms, such as Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, effectively target pigmentation and fight free-radical damage.
    Sarah Chapman
    Skincare expert

    Oxygen

    Crucial for allowing skin to breathe and retain its youthful appearance. A lack of oxygen through the capillaries of the subcutaneous area of the epidermis can result in premature skin aging.
    Ling Chan
    Facialist and skin care expert

    Salicylic acid

    Salicylic Acid (Beta Hydroxy Acid) is an exfoliant; helps remove dead skin cells to prevent blackheads and blemishes. Use all acids moderately and keep skin properly hydrated.
    Ling Chan
    Ling Skincare founder

    Vitamin E

    Applied topically, Vitamin E (Tocopherol) helps protect skin from sun damage. This powerful Antioxidant can also improve the effectiveness of other topical sun protectants.
    Ling Chan
    Ling Skincare founder

    Hyaluronic acid

    Natural complex sugar found in sub-skin connective tissue, which retains water, therefore moisturising, and expands skin volume to create a plumper appearance, as well as helping transport nutrients to skin cells.
    Karen Sinclair Drake
    Sophyto founder

    SPF Natural

    Usually Titanium Dioxide or Zinc Oxide, which naturally protect from ageing UVA/UVB rays by both degrading radiation into heat and reflecting it from skin. Good chemical-free protection.
    Dr. Saul Alkaitis
    Dr Alkaitis founder

    Vitamin K

    Applied topically, Vitamin K (Phytonadione) helps calm redness and irritation from conditions such as Rosacea and broken capillaries. Also reduces appearance of dark circles.
    Ling Chan
    Ling Skincare founder

    Enzymes

    Essential for proper skin function, enzymes improve circulation of nutrients to the skin, as well as exfoliating dead cells, making them essential for older skin in particular.
    Dr. Jón Bragi Bjarnason
    Icelandic biochemist

    Does not contain:

    Parabens

    Compounds widely used as anti-microbial preservatives. Adverse effects are inconclusive but parabens are thought to worsen Oestrogen dominance and have been found in breast tumour biopsies.
    Karen Sinclair Drake
    Sophyto founder

    Artificial Fragrance

    Due to cost, stability or unavailability of natural fragrance, most commercial fragrances use chemical equivalents. Long-term effects of mixing such chemicals still unknown.
    Michelle Roque O'Neill
    Aromatherapist

    Animal by-products

    Often cheaper than vegetable equivalents, these are used in some cosmetics, although not always identified eg. Allantoin (Uric acid from cows), Beeswax and Boar bristles.
    PETA
    Animal rights organisation

    Talc

    Mineral milled for cosmetics with a very similar chemical makeup to carcinogenic Asbestos. Cosmetic-grade Talc remains unregulated but particles have been found in cancerous tumours.
    Karen Sinclair Drake
    Sophyto founder

    Petrochemicals

    Synthetic products of chemically processed petroleum, these are unnecessary additives and can be effectively replaced by natural oils of excellent quality and great skin compatibility.
    Lena Korres
    Korres director

    Sulphates

    Foaming agents found in industrial cleaning products as well as cosmetics, usually known by acronyms eg. SLS and SLES. Irritants believed to denature proteins and therefore degenerate cell membranes.
    Karen Sinclair Drake
    Sophyto founder

    Formaldehyde

    A carcinogen used in some cosmetics released by some preservatives, including Imidazonyl Urea, upon contact with the skin.
    Dennis Hazleton
    Ila Spa chemist

    Mineral Oil

    By-product of petroleum used in many cleansers and creams. Coats skin like plastic, clogging pores. Interferes with skin's ability to eliminate toxins and slows down cell regeneration.
    Shenaz Shariff
    Skincare expert

    Specific concerns:

    Phthalates

    Synthetic chemicals (DEP, DEHP, DBP) used in some fragrances. They are not always listed so hard to avoid but tests have found links with reproductive damage.
    Dennis Hazleton
    Ila Spa Chemist

    Rosacea

    Chronic disorder affecting the cheeks, nose, chin or forehead. The redness worsens with age and visible blood vessels may appear exacerbated by stimulants, environmental pollutants and stress.
    Christian Lee
    Nutritionist

    Cellulite

    When skin collagen fibres harden, the fat, water and toxins held below it can protrude, causing an orange peel effect. Best prevented by exercising, improving diet, and addressing hormonal problems.
    Dr. Daniel Sister
    Anti-ageing skincare specialist

    Stretchmarks

    Broken, dilated connective tissue fibres caused by weight gain/loss. Creams can be used to prevent/fade stretch-marks while CarboxyTherapy can help shrink them.
    Susie Rogers
    BeautyWorksWest founder

    Age spots

    Usually harmless spots caused by sun-exposure. Fade creams, laser removal and freezing treatments can reduce them but prevention is better than cure so always use SPF.
    Susie Rogers
    BeautyWorksWest founder

    Acne/Spots

    90% of breakouts reflect dehydration and 10% hormonal disharmony. Oil glands overact to combat the imbalance and skin over-hydrates, clogging the sebaceous glands.
    Ling Chan
    Ling Skincare founder

    Dark circles

    Usually hereditary but sleep deprivation and Internal imbalances can cause colouration too; brown tinges indicate digestive problems, while blue indicates adrenal overload and poor circulation.
    Michelle Roques-O'Neil
    Aromatherapist

    Finelines/Wrinkles

    Caused by thickening of the dermis and dehydration of the epidermis. Crow's feet, worry and frown lines are caused by muscle use, while drooping is caused by gravity, and a loss of fat and collagen.
    Christian Lee
    Nutritionist

    Deep wrinkles

    Tissue folds, caused by frequent muscle use, that form a trough in conjunction with a breakdown in Collagen and Elastin support. Peptides can help smooth and sometimes peels are beneficial.
    Sarah Chapman
    Facialist and skincare expert

    Blackheads

    Clogged sebum, dirt and makeup oxidises in pores, turning dark and forming blackheads. Treat with oil cleansers or steam-cleaning facials to dissolve plugs without damaging the skin.
    Sarah Chapman
    Skincare expert

    Dandruff

    Dry/itchy/flaky scalp and dandruff can be caused by stress. Try an in-salon treatment or hypoallergenic shampoo formulated with AHA, to calm a sensitive scalp and loosen the build up of skin.
    Karine Jackson
    Hairstylist

    Urban/High pollution

    Combat pollutants and free radicals with a pH-balanced moisturiser, rich in Antioxidants and Pentapeptides, to regenerate dull skin. Use a pore-scrubbing cleanser to dissolve grime.
    Vanda Serrador
    Skincare expert

    Rural/Rough elements

    Treat dehydration, dryness, sensitivity and broken capillaries with a thick moisturiser containing Calendula and Vitamin C; avoid harsh exfoliants, alcohol-based toners and fragrant plant extracts.
    Kirsty Mcleod
    Skincare expert

    Party lifestyle

    Late-night parties take their toll on skin: smoking destroys Vitamin C, while alcohol depletes Vitamin B. Fight free-radical overload with powerful Antioxidants and vitamins internally and topically.
    Sarah Chapman
    Skincare expert

    Visible pores

    Enlarged pores are caused by congested skin that are blocked by a combination of excess sebum and dead cells. To reduce them exfoliate regularly using a Glycolic peel and/or mineral detox mask.
    Christian Lee
    Nutritionist

    Seventy +

    Skin is increasingly susceptible to sun damage so wear protective clothing at all times. Extrinsic ageing can also be slowed by taking Antioxidant-rich Vitamins A, C, E and Bioflavanoids.
    Lucy Halperin
    Makeup artist

    Hyperpigmentation

    Patches of skin darken when excess Melanin forms deposits; caused by sun damage, or hormonal changes, such as pregnancy.
    Shenaz Shariff
    Skincare expert

    Age range:

    Teens

    The worst of the teenage spots should be disappearing and your skin is plump and glowing. Investing time in your skin and moisturising with SPF15 will pay dividends as you age.
    Sarah Vorbach
    Face boutique director

    Twenties

    The worst of the teenage spots should be disappearing and your skin is plump and glowing. Investing time in your skin and moisturising with SPF15 will pay dividends as you age.
    Sarah Vorbach
    Face boutique director

    Thirties

    The payback years: sun-damage, partying and general life start to show as pigmentation, lines and slackening. Combat with anti-ageing products containing Vit A, Peptides and Antioxidants.
    Sarah Chapman
    Skincare expert

    Forties

    Hormonal changes can reduce elasticity, cause age spots and deepen wrinkles. Exfoliate regularly to renew cells, use rich moisturisers to plump up the skin and up your intake of Antioxidants.
    Michelle Roques-O'Neil
    Aromatherapist

    Fifties

    Skin becomes thin and fragile and retains less moisture. Products with Green Tea, Zinc and Vit C can reduce skin flare-ups; topical CoQ10 protects skin and dramatically reduces wrinkles.
    Michelle Roques-O'Neil
    Aromatherapist

    Sixties

    After menopause, Oestrogen levels decline making skin drier, thinner and more prone to fine lines, wrinkles, sagging. Acne breakouts and facial hair growth are possible, too.
    Christian Lee
    Nutritionist

    Seventy +

    Skin is increasingly susceptible to sun damage so wear protective clothing at all times. Extrinsic ageing can also be slowed by taking Antioxidant-rich Vitamins A, C, E and Bioflavanoids.
    Shenaz Shariff
    Skincare expert